br Specificity of BP TFG biosensor br
3.5. Specificity of BP-TFG biosensor
The specificity of the biosensor was evaluated to detect the non-specific analytes such as IgG, PSA and PBS in comparison with the specific target NSE, all at a same concentration of 10 ng/mL. During the detection processes, the optical signal was monitored in real-time and recorded (Fig. S6). The comparison results are presented in Fig. 6c, showing the specificity evaluation with the initial reaction rate of the first 3-min and the maximum signal change over whole process. The initial rates for PBS, IgG and PSA were 0%, 6%, 3% that of NSE, while the maximum wavelength shifts for PBS, IgG and PSA were 0%, 25%,
19% that of NSE, respectively. This indicates that the proposed bio-sensor shows a strong preference for the specific aﬃnity binding of NSE, demonstrating suﬃcient selectivity for NSE detection.
We proposed the first BP-fiber optic biosensor for ultrasensitive diagnosis of NSE cancer biomarkers. BP nanosheets were synthesized and deposited on fiber device to enhance the light-matter interaction where the unique optical modulation eﬀects induced by BP were ex-perimentally observed. The PLL-biofunctionalized BP provided a re-markable analytical platform for aﬃnity binding interface. The BP-TFG was implemented to detect NSE biomarkers demonstrating an ultrahigh sensitivity with the LOD of 1.0 pg/mL, which is 4 STA-21 magnitude lower than NSE cut-oﬀ value of SCLC. The enhanced sensitivity is 100-fold higher than GO- or AuNPs-based biosensors. The capability of BP-fiber optic biosensor with ultrahigh sensitivity and specificity opens up the possibility for early diagnosis of cancer, tumor and diseases. In order to match the requirements of practical application, the perfor-mance of BP-TFG biosensor will be evaluated with the clinical samples in the future work.
Declaration of interests
The authors declare that they have no known competing financial interests or personal relationships that could have appeared to influ-ence the work reported in this paper.
Appendix B. Supplementary data
Hermanson, G.T., 2013. Bioconjugate Techniques, third ed. Academic Press.
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Black phosphorus nanosheets-based nanocarriers for enhancing chemotherapy drug sensitiveness via depleting mutant p53 and resistant cancer multimodal therapy
Fan Wua, Ming Zhangb, Xiaohong Chub, Qicheng Zhangb, Yutian Sub, Baohong Sunb, Tingyu Lub, Ninglin Zhoub, , Jun Zhangb, Jianxiu Wanga, Xinyao Yia, a College of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Central South University, Changsha 410083, China b Jiangsu Collaborative Innovation Center of Biomedical Functional Materials, Jiangsu Key Laboratory of Bio-functional Materials, School of Chemistry and Materials Science, Nanjing Normal University, Nanjing 210023, China
• BPNs-based drug delivery system integrated with PEITC can enhance the DOX therapeutic effect. • BPNs-PDA-PEG-PEITC possessed a high drug loading capacity. • BPNs-PDA-PEG-PEITC/DOX could achieve synergistic photothermal/photodynamic/chemo-therapy of resistant cancer. • MRI was used to guide the resistant cancer therapy.
Synergistic photothermal/photodynamic/ chemo-therapy
Chemotherapy resistance hinders the successful clinical cancer therapy, because of the low sensitivity of drugs to resistant cancer cells. In resistant cancer cells, the mutant p53 possesses anti-apoptosis capability to tolerate chemotherapeutic drugs such as doxorubicin (DOX). Phenethyl isothiocyanate (PEITC) derived from cruciferous vegetables can deplete intracellular mutant p53. In this work, the black phosphorus nanosheets-based (BPNs-based) drug delivery system integrated with PEITC can effectively decrease mutant p53 level in resistant cancer cells and realize multiple drug resistance (MDR) reversal. The intrinsic properties of BPNs could achieve sy-nergistic photothermal/photodynamic/chemo-therapy of resistant cancer. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) is used to investigate the biodistribution of nanoparticles which confirmed the efficient accumulations of nano-particles at tumor sites. In vitro and in vivo anticancer experiments demonstrate the drug resistance tumor is effectively inhibited with minimal side effects by BPNs-based drug delivery system.
Malignant tumor continues to be a major fatal disease for which threaten human health and the morbidity is increasing with years [1,2]. In the field of the cancer therapy, chemotherapy is still the most ef-fective therapeutic approaches[3–5]. However, chemotherapy re-sistance is the main reason for treatment failure. With the development of multiple drug resistance (MDR), tumor cells can resist toxic drugs [6,7]. In resistant cells the tumor suppressor p53 undergo mutation of gene [8,9]. Wild-type p53 maintains normal genomic stability and in-duce cell apoptosis under DNA damage. However, the mutant p53 not only enhances tumorigenesis through gain of function by